Despite a common misconception, there is a significant amount of scientific evidence to support the use of specific nutritional and biomedical interventions for individuals with autism.
The following index links to citations describing emerging findings in autism research:
- Autism and the Gastrointestinal System
- Autism and Biomedical Treatment
- Nutritional Deficiencies, Supplements and Diet
- Autism and Detoxification
- Autism and the Neurological System
- Autism and the Environment
- Viruses and Bacteria in Autism
- Immune System Dysfunction and Treatment
- Genetics and Autism
- Autism and Mitochondria
- Autism and Oxidative Stress
Autism and the Gastrointestinal System
Afzal N, et al. Constipation with acquired megarectum in children with autism. Pediatrics. 2003 Oct;112(4):939-42.
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Ashwood P et al. Intestinal lymphocyte populations in children with regressive autism: evidence for extensive mucosal immunopathology. J Clin Immunol. 2003 Nov;23(6):504-17.
Ashwood P, Wakefield AJ. Immune activation of peripheral blood and mucosal CD3+ lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. J Neuroimmunol. 2006 Apr;173(1-2):126-34.
Balzola F, Barbon V, Repici A, Rizzetto M. Panenteric IBD-like disease in a patient with regressive autism shown for the first time by the wireless capsule enteroscopy: another piece in the jigsaw of this gut-brain syndrome? Am J Gastro. 2005; 979-981.
Balzola F, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: confirmation of a new inflammatory bowel disease in an Italian cohort of patients. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:Suppl.2;A-303.
Balzola F, et al. Beneficial behavioural effects of IBD therapy and gluten/casein-free diet in an Italian cohort of patients with autistic enterocolitis followed over one year. Gastroenterology, April 2006 Vol 130 Number 4 suppl. 2 S1364 A-21.
Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, Buie TM, Gorbach SL. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995 Aug;21(2):224-6.
Billoo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, et al. Role of probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in management and prevention of diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:4557-4560.
Black C, Kaye JA, Jick H. Relation of childhood gastrointestinal disorders to autism: nested case-control study using data from the UK General Practice Research Database. BMJ. 2002 Aug 24;325(7361):419-21.
Buchman AL, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for severe ulcerative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001 Oct;33(4):337-9.
Buie T, et al. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASDs: a consensus report. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S1-18.
Buie T, Fuchs GJ 3rd, Furuta GT, Kooros K, Levy J, Lewis JD, Wershil BK, Winter H. Recommendations for evaluation and treatment of common gastrointestinal problems in children with ASDs. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125 Suppl 1:S19-29.
Buts JP, De Keyser N. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on intestinal mucosa. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1485-92.
Cade R, et al.Autism and schizophrenia: intestinal disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience 3: 57-72, 2000.
Cade JR, et al.Autism and schizophrenia linked to malfunctioning enzyme for milk protein digestion. Autism, Mar 1999.
Chen B, Girgis S, El-Matary W. Childhood autism and eosinophilic colitis. Digestion. 2010;81(2):127-9.
DeFelice ML, et al. Intestinal cytokines in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 98(8): 1777-82: 2003.
del Giudice MM, Brunese FP.Probiotics, prebiotics, and allergy in children: what’s new in the last year? J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep;42 Suppl 3 Pt 2:S205-8.
D’Eufemia P, et al. Abnormal intestinal permeability in children with autism. Acta Paediatr. 1996 Sep;85(9):1076-9.
Fedorak RN, Madsen KL. Probiotics and the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2004 May;10(3):286.
Furlano RI, et al. Colonic CD8 and gamma delta T-cell infiltration with epithelial damage in children with autism. J Pediatr. 2001 Mar;138(3):366-72.
Galiatsatos P, et al. Autistic enterocolitis: fact or fiction? Can J Gastroenterol 2009;23(2):95-98.
Genuis SJ, Bouchard TP. Celiac Disease Presenting as Autism. J Child Neurol. 2009 Jun 29.
Gonzalez L, Lopez K, Navarro D, Negron L, Flores L, Rodriguez R, Martinez M, Sabra A. Endoscopic and Histological Characteristics of the digestive mucosa in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms. Arch Venez Pueric Pediatr 69;1:19-25
Hadjivassiliou M et al. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.
Hassall E. Decisions in diagnosing and managing chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease in children. J Pediatr. 2005 Mar;146(3 Suppl):S3-12.
Horvath K et al. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J Pediatr. 1999 Nov;135(5):559-63.
Horvath K, Perman JA. Autism and gastrointestinal symptoms. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002 Jun;4(3):251-8.
Horvath K, Perman JA. Autistic disorder and gastrointestinal disease. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2002 Oct;14(5):583-7.
Iacono G et al. Intolerance of cow’s milk and chronic constipation in children. N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 15;339(16):1100-4.
IÅŸeri SO, Sener G, SaÄŸlam B, Gedik N, Ercan F, YeÄŸen BC.Oxytocin ameliorates oxidative colonic inflammation by a neutrophil-dependent mechanism. Peptides. 2005 Mar;26(3):483-91.
Kawashima H et al. Detection and sequencing of measles virus from peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and autism. Dig Dis Sci. 2000 Apr;45(4):723-9.
Koch TR, et al. Induction of enlarged intestinal lymphoid aggregates during acute glutathione depletion in a murine model. Dig Dis Sci 2000. 45(11): 2115-21.
Kuddo T, Nelson KB. How common are gastrointestinal disorders in children with autism. Curr Opin Pediatr 2003: 15(3); 339-343.
Kushak R, Winter H, Farber N, Buie T. Gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal disaccharidase activities in children with autism. Abstract of presentation to the North American Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Annual Meeting, October 20-22, 2005, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Levy S, et al. Children with autistic spectrum disorders. I: Comparison of placebo and single dose of human synthetic secretin. Arch. Dis. Child. 2003;88;731-736.
Lewis JD, et al. An open-label trial of the PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone for active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 Dec;96(12):3323-8.
Macdonald A. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2006 Jul-Aug;29(4):295-301.
McGinnis WR. Mercury and autistic gut disease. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jul;109(7):A303-4.
Melmed RD, Schneider CK, Fabes RA. Metabolic markers and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism and related disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000:31(suppl 2)S31-32.
Nikolov, RN, et al, Gastrointestinal symptoms in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 Mar;39(3):405-13.
Parracho HM, Bingham MO, Gibson GR, McCartney AL. Differences between the gut microflora of children with autistic spectrum disorders and that of healthy children. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Oct;54(Pt 10):987-91.
Quigley EM, Hurley D. Autism and the gastrointestinal tract. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Sep;95(9):2154-6.
Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM. Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature of the discovered urine peptides? Nutr Neurosci. 2003 Feb;6(1):19-28.
Reichelt KL, et al. Probable Etiology and Possible Treatment of Childhood Autism. Brain Dysfuntion 1991; 4: 308-319.
Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM. The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):205-11.
Rimland, B. Secretin treatment for autism. N Engl J Med 2000. 342(16): 1216-7; author reply 1218.
Romano C, et al. Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec 7;11(45):7118-21.
Sandler RH, et al. Short-term benefit from oral vancomycin treatment of regressive-onset autism. J Child Neurol. 2000 Jul;15(7):429.
Schneider CK, Melmed RD, Barstow LE, Enriquez FJ, Ranger-Moore J, Ostrem JA. Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Dysfunction: A Prospective, Open-Label Study. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Jul 15.
Sido B, Hack V, Hochlehnert A, Lipps H, Herfarth C, Droge W. Impairment of intestinal glutathione synthesis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut. 1998 Apr;42(4):485-92.
Sienkiewicz-Szapka E, et al. Transport of bovine milk derived opioid peptides across a Caco-2 monolayer, Int Dairy J. 2008.
Song Y, Liu C, Finegold SM. Real-time PCR quantitation of clostridia in feces of autistic children. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Nov;70(11):6459-65.
Sturniolo, G.C., et al. Zinc supplementation tightens “leaky gut” in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 2001. 7(2): p. 94-8.
Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 2002 Feb 16;324(7334):393-6.
Torrente F, Anthony A. Focal-enhanced gastritis in regressive autism with features distinct from Crohn’s disease and helicobacter Pylori gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol 2004 Apr;99(4):598-605.
Torrente F et al. Small intestinal enteropathy with epithelial IgG and complement deposition in children with regressive autism. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(4):375-82, 334.
Valicenti-McDermott M, et al. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autistic spectrum disorders and association with family history of autoimmune disease. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Apr;27(2 Suppl):S128-36.
Valicenti-McDermott MD, McVicar K, Cohen HJ, Wershil BK, Shinnar S. Gastrointestinal symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder and language regression. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6):392-8.
Wakefield AJ, Ashwood P, Limb K, Anthony A. The significance of ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Aug;17(8):827-36.
Wakefield AJ. Enterocolitis, autism and measles virus. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7 Suppl 2:S44-6.
Wakefield AJ. The gut-brain axis in childhood developmental disorders. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2002 May-Jun;34 Suppl 1:S14-7.
Wakefield AJ et al. Review article: the concept of enterocolonic encephalopathy, autism and opioid receptor ligands. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002 16(4):663-74.
Wakefield AJ et al. Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Sep;95(9):2285-95.
Wakefield AJ, et al. Autism, viral infection and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Isr Med Assoc J. 1999 Nov;1(3):183-7.
Wakefield AJ. MMR vaccination and autism. Lancet. 1999 Sep 11;354(9182):949-50.
Welch MG, Welch-Horan TB, Anwar M, Anwar N, Ludwig RJ, Ruggiero DA. Brain effects of chronic IBD in areas abnormal in autism and treatment by single neuropeptides secretin and oxytocin. J Mol Neurosci 2005; 25(3):259-74.
White JF. Intestinal pathophysiology in autism. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003 Jun;228(6):639-49.
Whiteley P, Shattock P.Biochemical aspects in autism spectrum disorders: updating the opioid-excess theory and presenting new opportunities for biomedical intervention. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2002 Apr;6(2):175-83.
Autism and Biomedical Treatment
Bradstreet JJ, Smith S, Baral M, Rossignol DA. Biomarker-guided interventions of clinically relevant conditions associated with autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):15-32.
Goin-Kochel RP, Mackintosh VH, Myers, BJ. Parental reports on the efficacy of treatments and therapies of their children with autism spectrum disorders. Res Autism Spectr Disord. 2009.
Golnik AE, Ireland M. Complementary Alternative Medicine for Children with Autism: A Physician Survey.J Autism Dev Disord. 2009 Mar 11.
O’Hara NH, Szakacs GM. The recovery of a child with autism spectrum disorder through biomedical interventions. Altern Ther Health Med.2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):42-4.
Rossignol DA. Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):213-36.
Al-Gadani Y, El-Ansary A, Attas O, Al-Ayadhi L. Metabolic biomarkers related to oxidative stress and antioxidant status in Saudi autistic children. Clin Biochem. 2009 Jul;42(10-11):1032-40.
Faber S, Zinn GM, Kern Ii JC, Skip Kingston HM. The plasma zinc/serum copper ratio as a biomarker in children with autism spectrum disorders. Biomarkers. 2009 Mar 11:1-10.
James SJ, Cutler P, Melnyk S, Jernigan S, Janak L, Gaylor DW, Neubrander JA. Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Dec;80(6):1611-7.
Pastural E, et al. Novel plasma phospholipid biomarkers of autism: Mitochondrial dysfunction as a putative causative mechanism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009 Oct;81(4):253-64.
Yap IK, Angley M, Veselkov KA, Holmes E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Differentiates Children with Autism from Their Unaffected Siblings and Age-Matched Controls. J Proteome Res. 2010 May 13.
Nutritional Deficiencies, Supplements, & Diet
Adams JB, Holloway C. Pilot study of a moderate dose multivitamin/mineral supplement for children with autistic spectrum disorder. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1033-9.
Adams JB, George F, Audhya T. Abnormally high plasma levels of vitamin B6 in children with autism not taking supplements compared to controls not taking supplements. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):59-63.
Aldred S, et al. Plasma amino acid levels in children with autism and their families. J Autism Dev Disord. 2003 Feb;33(1):93-7.
Amminger GP, Berger GE, Schafer MR, Klier C, Friedrich MH, Feucht M. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Children with Autism: A Double-blind Randomized, Placebo-controlled Pilot Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Aug 22.
Andersen IM, et al. Melatonin for Insomnia in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Child Neurol. 2008 Jan 8.
Arnold GL et al. Plasma amino acids profiles in children with autism: potential risk of nutritional deficiencies. J Autism Dev Disord 2003 33(4):449-54.
Ashkenazi A, Levin S, Krasilowsky D. Gluten and autism. Lancet. 1980 Jan 19;1(8160):157.
Baker SB, Worthley LI. The essentials of calcium, magnesium and phosphate metabolism: part I. Physiology. Crit Care Resusc. 2002 Dec;4(4):301-6.
Barthelemy C, et al. Biological and clinical effects of oral magnesium and associated magnesium-vitamin B6 administration on certain disorders observed in infantile autism. Therapie. 1980 Sep-Oct;35(5):627-32.
Bolman WM, Richmond JA. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial of low dose dimethylglycine in patients with autistic disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 1999 Jun;29(3):191-4.
Bruni O, et al. L -5-Hydroxytryptophan treatment of sleep terrors in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2004 Jul;163(7):402-7.
Bu B, Ashwood P, Harvey D, King IB, Water JV, Jin LW. Fatty acid compositions of red blood cell phospholipids in children with autism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Apr;74(4):215-21.
Carlton R et al. Rational dosages of nutrients have a prolonged effect on learning disabilities. Alternative Therapies 2000; 6:85-91.
Chez MG, Buchanan CP, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders. J Child Neurol 2002: 17(11): 833-7.
Christison GW, Ivany K. Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amidst the chaff? J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Apr;27(2 Suppl):S162-71.
Connors SL, Crowell DE. Secretin and autism: the role of cysteine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;38(7):795-6.
Curtis LT, Patel K. Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):79-85.
Dolske MC, Spollen J, McKay S, Lancashire E, Tolbert L. A preliminary trial of ascorbic acid as supplemental therapy for autism. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Sep;17(5):765-74.
Elder JH. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: an overview with clinical implications. Nutr Clin Pract.2008 Dec-2009 Jan;23(6):583-8.
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Erdeve O et al. The probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in a pediatric age group. J Trop Pediatr. 2004 Aug;50(4):234-6.
Fernell E, et al. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in mothers of Swedish and of Somali origin who have children with and without autism. Acta Paediatr. 2010 May;99(5):743-7.
Fernstrom JD. Can nutrient supplements modify brain function? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun;71(6 Suppl):1669S-75S.
Finegold SM et al. Gastrointestinal microflora studies in late-onset autism. Clin Infect Dis 2002 35 (Suppl 1):S6-S16.
Giannotti F, Cortesi F, Cerquiglini A, Bernabei P. An open-label study of controlled-release melatonin in treatment of sleep disorders in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006 Aug;36(6):741-52.
Gill HS,Rutherfurd KJ, Prasad J, Gopal PK. Enhancement of natural and acquired immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019). Br J Nutr. 2000 Feb;83(2):167-76.
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Hsu CL, Lin CY, Chen CL, Wang CM, Wong MK. The effects of a gluten and casein-free diet in children with autism: a case report. Chang Gung Med J. 2009 Jul-Aug;32(4):459-65.
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Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):143-8.
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Lelord G, Callaway E, Muh JP. Clinical and biological effects of high doses of vitamin B6 and magnesium on autistic children. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1982;4(1-2):27-44.
Martineau J, Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Lelord G. Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biol Psychiatry. 1985 May;20(5):467-78.
Megson MN. Is autism a G-alpha protein defect reversible with natural vitamin A? Med Hypotheses. 2000 Jun;54(6):979-83.
Meiri G, et al. Omega 3 fatty acid treatment in autism. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009 Aug;19(4):449-51.
Moretti R, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: a review. Neurol India. 2004 Sep;52(3):310-8.
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Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Rapin J, Bali JP. Magnesium VitB6 intake reduces central nervous system hyperexcitability in children. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Oct;23(5):545S-548S.
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Saavedra JM. Use of probiotics in pediatrics: rationale, mechanisms of action, and practical aspects. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;22(3):351-65.
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Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):149-56.
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Vancassel S, et al. Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2001 Jul;65(1):1-7.
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Autism and Detoxification
Adams JB, Romdalvik J, Ramanujam V.M.S., Legator MS, Mercury, Lead, and Zinc in Baby Teeth of Children with Autism vs. Controls. J Toxicol Environ Health 2007 70(12):1046-51.
Adams JB, et al. The severity of autism is associated with toxic metal body burden and red blood cell glutathione levels. J Toxicol. 2009;2009:532640.
Adams JB, Romdalvik J, Levine KE, Lin-Wen H. Mercury in first-cut baby hair of children with autism versus typically developing children. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2008, 1–14, iFirst.
Adams JB, et al. Safety and efficacy of oral DMSA therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders: Part A–medical results & part B – behavioral results. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Oct 23;9:16&17.
Alberti A, et al. Sulphation deficit in “low-functioning” autistic children: a pilot study. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Aug 1;46(3):420-4.
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Aremu DA, Madejczyk MS, Ballatori N.N-acetylcysteine as a potential antidote and biomonitoring agent of methylmercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Jan;116(1):26-31.
Aschner M, Syversen T, Souza DO, Rocha JB. Metallothioneins: mercury species-specific induction and their potential role in attenuating neurotoxicity. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Oct;231(9):1468-73.
Becker KG, Schultz ST. Similarities in features of autism and asthma and a possible link to acetaminophen use. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Jan;74(1):7-11.
Beversdorf DQ, Manning SE, et al. Timing of prenatal stressors and autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2005: 35(4): 471-8.
Blanusa M, et al. Chelators as antidotes of metal toxicity: therapeutic and experimental aspects. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(23):2771.
Burbacher TM, Shen DD, Liberato N, Grant KS, Cernichiari E, Clarkson T. Comparison of blood and brain mercury levels in infant monkeys exposed to methylmercury or vaccines containing thimerosal. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Aug;113(8):1015-21.
Corsello S, Fulgenzi A, Vietti D, Ferrero ME. The usefulness of chelation therapy for the remission of symptoms caused by previous treatment with mercury-containing pharmaceuticals: a case report. Cases J. 2009 Nov 18;2:199.
Desoto MC, Hitlan RT. Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set. J Child Neurol. 2007 Nov;22(11):1308-1311.
DeSoto MC. Ockham’s Razor and autism: the case for developmental neurotoxins contributing to a disease of neurodevelopment. Neurotoxicology. 2009 May;30(3):331-7.
Emanuele E, et al. Low-grade endotoxemia in patients with severe autism. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 8;471(3):162-5.
Fonnum F, Lock EA. The contributions of excitotoxicity, glutathione depletion and DNA repair in chemically induced injury to neurones: exemplified with toxic effects on cerebellar granule cells. J Neurochem. 2004 Feb;88(3):513-31.
Forman J, et al. A cluster of pediatric metallic mercury exposure cases treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jun;108(6):575-7.
Gallagher, Goodman. Hepatitis B triple series vaccine and developmental disability in US children aged 1-9 years. Toxicol Environ Chem. 2008 Sept: 90(5)997-1008.
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Special thanks to the Autism Research Institute for supplying this list.